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Highly Available Control Plane with kubeadm 1.14+

Kubernetes 1.14 introduced an ALPHA feature for dynamically adding master nodes to a cluster. This prevents the need to copy certificates and keys among nodes relieving additional orchestration and complexity in the bootstrapping process. In this post we will dive into how it works.

How It Works

kubeadm init initializes a Kubernetes cluster by standing up a single master. After running the command, you end up with the following.

This represents the default. Through additional configuration, kubeadm init can behave differently, such as reusing an existing etcd cluster.

Conventionally, after installing a CNI plugin, users copy PKI information across 2 more master nodes and run a kubeadm command to add new control plane nodes. This results in a 3 node control plane.

1.14 introduced the --upload-certs flag to the kubeadm init command. As detailed in the KEP, it has the following impact.

  1. Creates an encryption key on the host.

  2. Encrypts certificates and keys with the encryption key.

  3. Adds encrypted data to the kubeadm-certs secret in the kube-system namespace.

  4. Links the kubeadm-certs secret to a kubeadm token with a 1 hour TTL.

Taking the example above, if we run the following command, it will result in the new diagram below.

kubeadm init --experimental-upload-certs

When the kubeadm token expires, so does the kubeadm-certs secret. Also, whenever the init phase upload-certs is run, a new encryption key is created. Ensuring that if kube-apiserver is compromised during the adding of a master node, the secret is encrypted and meaningless to the attacker. This example demonstrates running --experimental-upload-certs during cluster bootstrap. It is also possible to tap into phases, using kubeadm init phase upload-certs to achieve the above on an existing master. This will be detailed in the walkthrough below.

Lastly, it is important to note the token generated during upload-certs is only a proxy used to bind a TTL to the kubeadm-cert secret. You still need a conventional kubeadm token to join a control plane. This is the same token you would need to join a worker.

To add another control plane (master) node, a user can run the following command.

kubeadm join ${API_SERVER_PROXY_IP}:${API_SERVER_PROXY_PORT} \
    --experimental-control-plane \
    --certificate-key=${ENCRYPTION_KEY} \
    --token ${KUBEADM_TOKEN} \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash ${APISERVER_CA_CERT_HASH}

Walkthrough: Creating the HA Control Plane

This walkthrough will guide you to creating a new Kubernetes cluster with a 3 node control plane. It will demonstrate joining a control plane right after bootstrap and how to add another control plane node after the bootstrap tokens have expired.

  1. Create 4 hosts (vms, baremetal, etc).

    These hosts will be referred to as loadbalancer, master0, master1, and master2.

    master hosts may need 2 vCPUs and 2GB of RAM available. You can get around these requirements during testing by ignoring pre-flight checks. See the kubeadm documentation for more details.

  2. Record the host IPs for later use.

Setup the Load Balancer

In this section, we’ll run a simple NGINX load balancer to provide a single endpoint for our control plane. This load balancer example is not meant for production scenarios.

  1. SSH to the loadbalancer host.

  2. Create the directory /etc/nginx.

    mkdir /etc/nginx
  3. Add and edit the file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.

    vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  4. Inside the file, add the following configuration.

    events { }
    
    stream {
        upstream stream_backend {
            least_conn;
            # REPLACE WITH master0 IP
            server 192.168.122.160:6443;
            # REPLACE WITH master1 IP
            server 192.168.122.161:6443;
            # REPLACE WITH master2 IP
            server 192.168.122.162:6443;
        }
    
        server {
            listen        6443;
            proxy_pass    stream_backend;
            proxy_timeout 3s;
            proxy_connect_timeout 1s;
        }
    
    }
  5. Alter each line above with a REPLACE comment above it.

  6. Start NGINX.

    docker run --name proxy \
        -v /etc/nginx/nginx.conf:/etc/nginx/nginx.conf:ro \
        -p 6443:6443 \
        -d nginx
  7. Verify you can reach NGINX at its address.

    curl 192.168.122.170

    output:

    curl: (52) Empty reply from server

Install Kubernetes Binaries on Master Hosts

  1. Complete all pre-requisites and installation on master nodes.

    1. See: https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/independent/install-kubeadm.

Initialize the Cluster and Examine Certificates

  1. SSH to the master0 host.

  2. Create the directory /etc/kubernetes/kubeadm

    mkdir /etc/kubernetes/kubeadm
  3. Create and edit the file /etc/kubernetes/kubeadm/kubeadm-config.yaml.

    vim /etc/kubernetes/kubeadm/kubeadm-config.yaml
  4. Add the following configuration.

  5. Alter the line with a REPLACE comment above it.

  6. Initialize the cluster with upload-certs and config specified.

    kubeadm init \
        --config=/etc/kubernetes/kubeadm/kubeadm-config.yaml \
        --experimental-upload-certs
  7. Record the output regarding joining control plane nodes for later use.

    output:

    You can now join any number of the control-plane node running the following command on each as root:
    
    kubeadm join 192.168.122.170:6443 --token nmiqmn.yls76lcyxg2wt36c \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:5efac16c86e5f2ed6b20c6dbcbf3a9daa5bf75aa604097dbf49fdc3d1fd5ff7d \
    --experimental-control-plane --certificate-key 828fc83b950fca2c3bda129bcd0a4ffcd202cfb1a30b36abb901de1a3626a9df

    Note the certificate-key that enables decrypting the kubeadm certs secret.

  8. As your user, run the recommended kubeconfig commands for kubectl access.

    mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
    sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
    sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config
  9. Examine the kubeadm-cert secret in the kube-system namespace.

    kubectl get secrets -n kube-system kubeadm-certs -o yaml

    You should see certs for etcd, kube-apiserver, and service accounts.

  10. Under ownerReferences, examine the name.

    name: bootstrap-token-cwb9ra

    This correlates to an ephemeral kubeadm token. When that token expires, so does this secret.

  11. List available tokens with kubeadm.

    kubeadm token list

    output:

    TOKEN                     TTL       EXPIRES                USAGES                   DESCRIPTION                                       
    cwb9ra.gegoj2eqddaf3yps   1h        2019-03-26T19:38:18Z   <none>                   Proxy for managing TTL for the kubeadm-certs secret
    nmiqmn.yls76lcyxg2wt36c   23h       2019-03-27T17:38:18Z   authentication,signing   <none>                                              

    Note that cwb9ra is the owner reference in the above step. This is not a join token, instead a proxy that enables ttl on kubeadm-certs. We still need to use the nmiqmn token when joining.

  12. Install calico CNI-plugin with a pod CIDR matching the podSubnet configured above.

    kubectl apply -f https://gist.githubusercontent.com/joshrosso/ed1f5ea5a2f47d86f536e9eee3f1a2c2/raw/dfd95b9230fb3f75543706f3a95989964f36b154/calico-3.5.yaml
  13. Verify 1 node is Ready.

    kubectl get nodes

    output:

    NAME              STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    192-168-122-160   Ready    master   79m   v1.14.0
  14. Verify kube-system pods are Running.

    kubectl get pods -n kube-system

    output:

    NAME                                      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    calico-node-mphpw                         1/1     Running   0          58m
    coredns-fb8b8dccf-c6s9q                   1/1     Running   0          80m
    coredns-fb8b8dccf-mxzrm                   1/1     Running   0          80m
    etcd-192-168-122-160                      1/1     Running   0          79m
    kube-apiserver-192-168-122-160            1/1     Running   0          79m
    kube-controller-manager-192-168-122-160   1/1     Running   0          79m
    kube-proxy-dpxhx                          1/1     Running   0          80m
    kube-scheduler-192-168-122-160            1/1     Running   0          79m

Add the Second Master

  1. SSH to the master1 host.

  2. Run the recorded join command from the previous section.

    kubeadm join 192.168.122.170:6443 --token nmiqmn.yls76lcyxg2wt36c \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:5efac16c86e5f2ed6b20c6dbcbf3a9daa5bf75aa604097dbf49fdc3d1fd5ff7d \
    --experimental-control-plane \
    --certificate-key 828fc83b950fca2c3bda129bcd0a4ffcd202cfb1a30b36abb901de1a3626a9df
  3. After completion, verify there are now 2 nodes.

    kubectl get nodes

    output:

    NAME              STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    192-168-122-160   Ready    master   22m   v1.14.0
    192-168-122-161   Ready    master   34s   v1.14.0
  4. Verify new pods have been created.

    kubectl get pods -n kube-system

    output:

    NAME                                      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    calico-node-cq5nt                         1/1     Running   0          60s
    calico-node-spn5w                         1/1     Running   0          13m
    coredns-fb8b8dccf-r9sc8                   1/1     Running   0          22m
    coredns-fb8b8dccf-wlcm4                   1/1     Running   0          22m
    etcd-192-168-122-160                      1/1     Running   0          21m
    etcd-192-168-122-161                      1/1     Running   0          59s
    kube-apiserver-192-168-122-160            1/1     Running   0          21m
    kube-apiserver-192-168-122-161            1/1     Running   0          59s
    kube-controller-manager-192-168-122-160   1/1     Running   0          21m
    kube-controller-manager-192-168-122-161   1/1     Running   0          60s
    kube-proxy-tflhf                          1/1     Running   0          60s
    kube-proxy-vthjr                          1/1     Running   0          22m
    kube-scheduler-192-168-122-160            1/1     Running   0          22m
    kube-scheduler-192-168-122-161            1/1     Running   0          59s

Add the Third Master with New Tokens

This section joins the third and final master. However, we will first delete all existing kubeadm tokens. This approach demonstrates how you could add masters when the Kubernetes cluster is already running.

  1. On an existing master, list all tokens.

    kubeadm token list
  2. Delete all existing tokens.

    kubeadm token delete cwb9ra.gegoj2eqddaf3yps
    kubeadm token delete nmiqmn.yls76lcyxg2wt36c

    Now the previously recorded join command will not work as the kubeadm-certs secret has expired and been deleted, the encryption key is no longer valid, and the join token will not work.

  3. Create a new token with a 10 minute TTL.

    kubeadm token create --ttl 10m --print-join-command

    output:

    kubeadm join 192.168.122.170:6443 \
        --token xaw58o.0fjg0xp0ohpucwhr \
        --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:5efac16c86e5f2ed6b20c6dbcbf3a9daa5bf75aa604097dbf49fdc3d1fd5ff7d 

    Note the IP above must reflect your loadbalancer host.

  4. Run the upload-certs phase of kubeadm init.

    kubeadm init phase upload-certs --experimental-upload-certs

    output:

    [upload-certs] Storing the certificates in ConfigMap "kubeadm-certs" in the "kube-system" Namespace
    [upload-certs] Using certificate key:
    9555b74008f24687eb964bd90a164ecb5760a89481d9c55a77c129b7db438168
  5. SSH to the master2 host.

  6. Use the outputs from the previous steps to run a control-plane join command.

    kubeadm join 192.168.122.170:6443 \
        --experimental-control-plane \
        --certificate-key 9555b74008f24687eb964bd90a164ecb5760a89481d9c55a77c129b7db438168 \
        --token xaw58o.0fjg0xp0ohpucwhr \
        --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:5efac16c86e5f2ed6b20c6dbcbf3a9daa5bf75aa604097dbf49fdc3d1fd5ff7d
  7. After completion, verify there are now 3 nodes.

    kubectl get nodes

    output:

    NAME              STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
    192-168-122-160   Ready    master   50m     v1.14.0
    192-168-122-161   Ready    master   28m     v1.14.0
    192-168-122-162   Ready    master   3m30s   v1.14.0

Summary

I hope you found this post helpful in understanding HA bootstrapping with kubeadm. Checkout the KEP and documentation for more features and configuration. I am really looking forward to the hardening of this feature and perhaps what it can mean for installation methods such as kubespray and Cluster API. Special thanks to everyone in sig-cluster-lifecycle who developed, reviewed, and documented this awesome feature.